Study of Adolescent Stress and Parenting
Shrivastava1*, Priyamvada Srivastava2
1 School of Studies in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar
Shukla University, Raipur 492010, India.
*Corresponding author: getswatishri@
deals with the relationship between adolescent stress and perception of
parenting. The present study consists
of 400 students (200 male & 200 female) from higher secondary school
both govt. and private from C.G. India. Respondents were selected by using
random sampling method. Parenting scale was use to assess parenting
comprises of 1)Rejection Vs Acceptance 2)Carelessness Vs Protection 3)Neglect Vs
Indulgence 4)Utopian expectation Vs
Realism 5) Lenient standard Vs moralism
6) Freedom Vs discipline 7) Faulty role expectation Vs realistic role
expectation 8)Marital conflict Vs marital adjustment dimension and total stress
was used. To assess the
stress adolescent stress Questionnaire
(ASQ) originally developed by Byrne, Byrne Reinhart, (1995) Byrne &
Mazanov, (2002) & translated in Hindi by the researcher was used. The
parenting style scale developed by Bharadwaj, Sharma, Garg(1995) consisted of
40 items was used to asses parenting style. The Pearson product moment
correlation was computed to find out relationship between stress and parenting.
The correlation coefficient was found negatively significant between stress and
parenting for Carelessness Vs protection, Neglect Vs Indulgence, Freedom Vs
Discipline and Marital conflict Vs Marital adjustment. It indicated that the
high adolescent stress is related with parenting dominated with carelessness,
neglect, freedom and marital conflict as perceived by the adolescent student.
It is concluded that adolescents feel high level of stress when they experience
carelessness, neglect, freedom and marital parenting scale comprising of
Keywords: Adolescent, Stress, Parenting.
Stress can be defined as the judgement
of a situation or event as challenging, demanding and threatening (Hardie,
2005). It was stated earlier that adolescent stress
often leads to negative outcomes such as drugs and alcohol abuse or even to the
more severe outcomes such as depression and suicidal attempts (Byrne
& Mazanov 2003).Therefore it is thought proper to study students’
perception of Stress. Stress is negative factor for the academic performance
several types of studies have found that the significant negative relationship
between the stress levels of college students and their academic performance (Felsten and Wilcox 1992) as well as Life stress is
strongly connected with poor mental and physical health. (Cohen et al., 2007;
Slavich et al.,2010 as cited in Toussaint, Shields, Dorn, & Slavich, 2016) maladaptive behaviour major
cause of chronic health related diseases Pouwer, Kupper, and Adriaanse, 2010; Grigsby, Anderson, Freedland, Clouse, & Lustman, 2002; Esch et. al, 2002; Surwit, 2002; Kashinath et. al., 2014). Parenting
is defined as the style of child upbringing by mother and father to prepare the
child for society and culture for providing a basic for child to develop same
Parenting plays an important role in
development of depression and negative affect negative association of
depression and authoritative parenting style was reported by authoritarian
parenting style and negative affect was reported by Farrell (2015).
significant, negative relationship between parent’s authoritative
parenting style and student’s depression; a similar pattern was also seen
between secure and unsure parent’s attachment style and student’s depression.
There was a positive and significant relationship between parent’s permissive
and authoritarian parenting style and student’s depression. There was also a
positive and significant relationship between parent’s avoidant attachment and
student’s depression. Farrell (2015) found that there was one significant
relationship found specifically between the authoritarian parenting style and
preschool-aged children’s degree of negative affect or negative temperament
related to emotional intelligence. No other interactions were found between the
remaining parenting styles and children’s level of emotional intelligence
and Moss (2012) examined that parent distress, authoritative and permissive
parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly
associated with children's health-related behaviours. They found that higher
levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical
factor in the development of health-related behaviours.
Moksnes, Maljord and Espnes, (Year 2010) Found that the association
between stress, self-esteem and emotional states (depression and anxiety) in
adolescent. The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores
on all stress domains and on emotional states as compared with boys. Boys
scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple
regression analysis showed a significant
association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life,
school performance and adult
responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. The associations between
stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse
association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak
moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress
related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and
Studies also reveal social stress among
adolescents Schraedly, Gotlib &
Hayward, (1999) Depressive symptoms were found to differ by gender, age,
socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. In addition,
life stress, Social support and coping were associated with depressive
symptoms. Importantly, Stress and Social support appear to be particularly
salient aspects of depression among girls. Both physical and sexual abuses were
strongly linked with
Parenting relates to the
upbringing of child. Parenting, as a perception of the parents of their own
attitude towards the child, happens to be of great significance in the dynamics
of behaviour for socio psychological researches and should be deemed most
important as he is the one whose process of socialization stands for
maintenance (Bhardwaj, 1996).
Darling and Steinberg (1993),
define parenting style as a constellation of attitudes towards the child
communicated to the child by the parent that taken together create an emotional
climate in which the parent's behaviours are expressed. These behaviours include
both the specific, goal-directed behaviour through which parents perform their
parental duties (what Darling and Steinberg refer to as parenting practices) as
well as non-goal directed parental behaviours, such as gestures, changes in
tone of voice, or the spontaneous expression of emotion.
Baumrind (1991), Steinberg, Dornbush & Brown (1992), Karavasilis,
Doyle & Margolese (1999) found just as parental sensitivity and
responsiveness contribute to secure attachment in infancy, parental
warmth/involvement, encouragement of increasing self-control and decision
making, appropriate limit setting and monitoring appear to foster secure
attachment and adjustment in late childhood and early adolescence.
Dishion, Patterson, Stool miller & Skinner (1991) Conger, Patterson
& Ge, (1995) found that low warmth and low control may be particularly
associated with dismissing/avoidant attachment and low psychological autonomy
granting with preoccupied attachment. Similarly hostile, punishment and
coercive interactions between parents and children combined with poor parental
monitoring have been found to contribute to conduct problems in preadolescence
and antisocial behaviour in adolescence.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the
relationship between adolescent stress and parenting style.
SAMPLE – The sample of the
present study comprises of male and female students from different schools of
Bhilai and Durg (C.G.) India. The total
sample for this study consists of 400 students 200 girls and 200 boys. All the
participants were selected randomly.
To assess the stress adolescent
stress Questionnaire (ASQ) originally developed by Byrne,
Byrne Reinhart, (1995) Byrne & Mazanov, (2002) & translated in Hindi by
the researcher was used for the purpose of research. It consisted of 56 items
which asses adolescent’s stress. The total stress level was considered.
parenting scale developed by Bharadwaj, Sharma, Garg (1995) consisted of 40
items was used to asses parenting. The scale has eight dimensions that are: 1)
Rejection Vs Acceptance 2) Carelessness Vs Protection 3)Neglect Vs Indulgence
4)Utopian expectation Vs Realism 5)
Lenient standard Vs moralism 6) Freedom
Vs discipline 7) Faulty role expectation Vs realistic role expectation
8)Marital conflict Vs marital adjustment.
The low scores on the scale show poor parenting
rejection, carelessness, neglect, utopian expectation, lenient standard,
freedom, faulty role expectation, and marital conflict.
RESULT: The data obtained was analysed using Pearson product
moment correlation. The results are reported in table.
Table: Stress and Parenting:
Fau.Rol Expt. Vs
Real. Role Expt.
Marital conflict Vs Adjustment
There is significant negative relationship of adolescent stress with
various dimension of parenting specifically Carelessness Vs Protection
(r=-.106, p<0.01), Neglect Vs Indulgence(r=-.105,p<0.01), Freedom Vs
Discipline (r=-.084,p<0.01) and Marital Conflict Vs Marital Adjustment
(r=-.109,p<0.01).It indicates that adolescents perception of carelessness,
neglect, freedom and marital conflict
from parents lead to stress .It means that higher the stress lower score
is on parenting dimension.
It means that adolescent stress is
having relationship with parenting style, how they perceive their parents
parenting .Adolescents perception of negative parenting from their parents
leads to higher level of stress in them, It has been found that there is
negative association between adolescent stress and carelessness neglect
,freedom and marital conflict stress. Thus the results shows that the adolescent’s
feel stress when parents are carelessness, neglect, freedom and marital
Parenting on carelessness
dimension manifests itself, when both or either parents do not pay close
attention towards child’s activities thus giving an impression of unwantedness
by carelessness and unthoughtful negligible behaviour towards him even in
presence of his proper and worthy behaviour
in day to day matters. Neglecting the children by their parents even
after conscious of their need is again injurious to their psychological health.
It manifests itself in lack of attention and cooperation with them, willful
ignoring them and their activities and avoidance of their genuine needs. Giving
more importance to self designs of work but least attention to their feeling
and needs come within purview of neglect.
Freedom manifests itself in
absence of limit or control over all matters to what they may pertain to. In
fact the child is a sole decision maker of his activities. There is hardly any
questioning or impediments on the part of parents. He may disregard or disobey
his parents without any fear of punishment from them.
Marital conflict affects the child
as and when he/she witnesses open conflicts between their parents. The child is
not able to reconcile with and it leaves a nonpalatable feeling on his mind.
Adolescent stress is significantly negatively association with parenting
style Carelessness Vs protection, Neglect Vs Indulgence, Freedom Vs Discipline
and Marital conflict Vs Marital adjustment. It means that parents have to be
very much attentive towards their children their carelessness behaviour lead to
Low warmth and low control may be particularly associated with
dismissing/avoidant attachment, and low psychological autonomy granting with
preoccupied attachment. Similarly, hostile punishment and coercive interactions
between parents and children combined with poor parental monitoring have been
found to generate conduct problems in preadolescence and antisocial behaviour
in adolescence (Dishion, Patterson, Stoolmiller & Skinner, 1991; Cogner
Patterson & Ge, 1995).
Many studies have been conducted in this area Dancy and Handal (1980,
1984) found that adolescent's perception of high family conflict was associated
with their reports lack of family cohesion – expressiveness and religious
emphasis. The adolescents from high conflict families also reported more
psychological impairment and less satisfaction with their social life.
Schneewind and Lortz (1978) found that parental selfcriticism, lack of
expressiveness and involved with the child were associated with poor family
Most adolescents seek help from their parents, as the parents are
perceived to be understanding and supportive. Raymond Montemayor(1986) elicits
that parents and adolescents who have good communication between them and when
parenting style is helping the adolescents to communicate their stress have
better relationship. And parents also facilitate the adolescents to combat
stress. Rex Forehand et al (1991) Investigated on Adolescents and their
parent’s stress. They found that the stress in the family like divorce,
intrapersonal conflict and maternal depression leads to stress in the
In an article by Sen. S (2006) has touched upon every aspect of the
adolescence phase. Through review of research she has put forth the important
aspects of adolescence. And they are: a) the role confusion among adolescents
b) encouraging adolescents to explore opportunities c) Helping the adolescents
with Identity crisis d) Influence on adolescents of family e) the attitude of
parents towards and vice-versa.
Preethi and Rosa (2012) examined parenting style in relation to stress
and self esteem. They found that there was a difference in the stress and self
esteem between two different parenting styles and there was an inverse relation
between stress and self esteem among parents.
Parents are expected to have knowledge of keeping good relationship with
their adolescent child as it is a challenging period. Thus they have to play
their role properly. Due to drastic change in present life style of adolescents
the parents are unable to understand them and thus results in wide generation
gap. Terry (2004) examined relationship between parenting style and delinquent
behaviour in college students. He found relationship between the student’s
perception of parenting style and the student’s self report of psychological
problems. Students who reported experiencing an authoritarian parenting style
report more problems. These students also report having more difficult
temperaments. Bhushan (1993) found that openness in communication with parents
is of significant, explanatory worth for the identity achievement scores of
Ong’s (2000), study in Singapore
which discovered fathers being less strict and harsh as expected whereas
mothers were relatively stricter and controlling. Elias and Tan (2009), also
performed a study Malaysian youths and found both fathers and mothers were
being perceived as authoritative instead.
Finkenauer et al. (2005), concluded from their data of adolescents that
the level of parental acceptance and control influenced children’s social
adjustment. Perceiving parents as authoritarian, those who restrict and exert
high level of control causes more children to response aggressively towards
external factors. Hence they encounter emotional problems such as stress and
depression. Parents who are strict but also show support, acceptance and are
involve in children’s activities lead to more positive outcomes, which are
reflected in their better psychosocial adjustment.
There is negative association between adolescents perceived stress
adolescents perception of parenting style Carelessness Vs protection, Neglect
Vs Indulgence, Freedom Vs Discipline and Marital conflict Vs Marital
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