of Subclinical Depression among College Students: A Review
Anamika Modi Jain and
Dr. M. Jha
Psychometric laboratory, School of Studies in
Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh.
- Early adult stage is the transition from adolescence to young
adulthood, presents significant challenges like the chance to manage one’s life
and affect more independent roles. A number of them adjust with these
challenges and a few couldn’t manage these stressors which can cause the mental
health problems. Among these problems depression is very common, and it is very
difficult to detect in early stage, which often identified as a minor or
SD patients were in a
mean position between non-depressive and depressive patients with regard to
social isolation and physical destruction; women were overrepresented in the
depressive and sub-depressive groups” (Schnieder et al. 2000). Study suggests the prevalence rate of
subclinical depression was very high, which need urgent attention for
identification and treatment. If it is ignored or left untreated long term
effect may be appear in the form of major or severe depression.
METHOD - A comprehensive systematic search of
published literature and journal articles from Google Scholar, Pub Med, MEDLINE
and EBSCO was taken. Search strategy specific to each data repository was used.
During initial search 642 titles were retrieved and finally 38 empirical
researches were selected based on the inclusion criteria.
RESULT - Total
38 articles were selected, out of 38 approx 36 studies shows the rate of
prevalence of Subclinical depression among college students and some studies
based on impact and factors associated with subclinical depression.
CONCLUSION - It is very important that health care
providers, counselors, teachers and parents should pay special attention for
early detection and treatment of subclinical depressive symptoms in early
Subclinical depression (SD), College students, Prevalence, Health care
depression refers to an emotionally negative state which significantly
influences level of achievement and quality of life, but which cannot be classified
as an illness. Based on the seriousness of the symptoms, it could be measured
on different scales of depression as mild or moderate” (Margitics, 2006). “When
4-5 symptoms of depression present continue two weeks with the impairment
present in individual functioning, then it is subclinical depression. It is a
common condition person falling below the diagnostic threshold experience”, it
affect our daily life negatively.
that do not obey with the diagnostic criteria for specific depressive disorders
are nominated as 'subclinical' or 'sub-syndromal' depressive syndromes. SD
patients were in a mean position between non-depressive and depressive patients
with regard to social isolation and physical destruction; women were overrepresented
in the depressive and sub-depressive groups” (Schnieder et al. 2000). Regarding
subclinical depression, also called sub-threshold depression or sub-syndromal
symptomatic depression, between 2 and 5 depressive symptoms were required for
the diagnosis and a minimum duration of 2 weeks. Significant destruction
associated with sub-threshold depressive conditions, as well as co morbidity
with other mental disorders, has been described.
for the study:
The world health organization (WHO) defines “depression
is a common mental disorder that presents with sad mood, loss of interest or
happiness, feeling of guiltiness or low sense of worth, scattered sleep or
appetite low energy and reduced attention”. These problems can become constant,
repeated and change in to significant disability in a person’s capability to
take care of his or her daily responsibilities”. At its bad, depression can
direct to suicide, a disastrous casualty linked with the loss of about 850,000
life’s per year. The WHO highlights the occurrence of depression in younger age
group (20-25). Based on data NCR-R (National Co-morbidity Survey-Replication),
half of all life time cases of mood disorders start at 14 years and
three-fourths by 24 years (Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin & Walters, 2005).
Subclinical Depression (minor or sub threshold depression) have been defined in
a wide range of forms, varying on a number of symptoms and duration required.
Subclinical Depression in adolescent is a risk factor for further development
of clinical depression. However there is a lacuna of research that document
subclinical depression among adolescent in India.
The aim of the study find out the
prevalence rate of subclinical depression among college students and factors
associated with it.
To determine the prevalence of subclinical depression and factors
associated with it.
Search strategy methods:
The subclinical depression was selected as the area of interest
and a search was conducted on online database. Google scholar, Pub Med,
MEDLINE, EBSCO to retrieve quantitative and qualitative research article
published from 2003-2020 and the search was confined to only English language.
The search terms used “subclinical depression”, minor depression, “sub-threshold
depressive symptoms”, sub-threshold depression; “subclinical depressive
conditions” sub-syndromal depression and prevalence of depression among college
students and those terms were searched both in the title and in the abstract. We
included original research, prevalence and associated characteristics of minor
and sub-threshold depression in general in both community and primary care
affecting subclinical depression among college students [All Fields]
"Subclinical depression [Mesh] AND "College students" [Mesh])
AND "minor depression" [Mesh]) AND “early Adulthood" [Mesh]) AND
"prevalence of depression” [Mesh].
Types of studies:
study and Quantitative study, Cross sectional study and longitudinal study.
Type of participants:
College students / early adult / late
adolescents, above residing in rural and urban area.
area, urban area and studying in college and university.
narrative review shows that the prevalence of subclinical depression was very
common among the college students and late adolescence or early adult stage,
which may cause the major depression in next stage of life. And several factors
impact on depression among college students which provoke depressive symptoms.
Delivery of Intervention:
narrative review was predetermined with the exploration of reviews related to
the topic “Prevalence of subclinical depression among college students” the
search begins with the keywords. Online databases which were used for the
exploration of review were Google scholar, Pub Med from the year 2003-2020. The
search was confined to only English language other was excluded. Those phrases
were searched both within the name and inside the abstract. We protected
authentic researches (Observational and epidemiological studies) occurrence and
related characteristics of youngster and subclinical depression in younger
population in both community and primary health care settings. Bibliography of
retrieved papers changed into examined. 642 papers have been considered. 38
studies have been selected as they had been population based research analyzing
subclinical depressive (mild and moderate depressive) situations in well known
population. The remaining 602 papers
were disqualified because of numerous reasons: the kind of paper; research of
the psychometric properties of instruments, records excluded due to exceed
limitation of the year, restrict to
particular age ranges, evaluation of interventions (effectiveness of
various therapies); studies of the biology of subclinical depressive disorders.
(Table too large to preview. Please view the Table in PDF version of this article.)
narrative review outcome shows the prevalence of subclinical depression among students
studying in different colleges or universities. It reveals that subclinical or
minor depression was very common among early adult or college students and
are a variety of variables that influence the severity of depression, including
biological, social, psychological, demographical, behavioral and cognitive
available literature was refined to get 38 quantitative studies:
of 38 studies maximum empirical research shows the prevalence rate of subclinical
depression along with different level of occurrence of depression.
· Some longitudinal studies concluded
that significant association between minor depression in adolescences and
adverse mental health result in adulthood or major/severe depression resulted
· A few studies concluded that
females was vulnerable for depression these studies show the gender effect.
· Among these several studies based
on the socio-demographic variables like locale, stream of education, year of
the studies, type of educational institute, parents education.
· A few number of studies based on
the personal relations with their partners (break up in romance).
number of studies determined that subclinical depression impacts on their
quality of life negatively, social impairments and suicidal ideation also found
with subclinical depression.
Depression may be a one among the foremost common
causes of disability and common global ill health, altogether periods of life,
among these periods college may be a period of change as adolescents develop
new skills, experiences, expand social networks and gain knowledge It are often
a stressful life event for several students getting to college or university as
they agree to change in lifestyle, community and relationship changes. The
transition from adolescence to young adulthood presents significant challenges
like the chance to manage one’s life and affect more independent roles. A
number of them adjust with these challenges and a few couldn’t manage these
stressors which can cause the depression, so it's necessary to try and do
further intervention programs to prevent the subclinical depression in college
Importance in education:
Depression is a taboo subject in our culture. Having
a basic understanding of subclinical depression will assist students who
frequently suffer from various levels of depression, as well as parents,
teachers and healthcare providers, in expanding their knowledge. It will also
help in the early detection of symptoms and will improve the mental health
status of those who are suffering from it.
the number of occurrences of subclinical depression, also known as the primary
stage of major depression, it is critical to recognize in youths so that it may
be prevented at this time. It's also crucial to educate and teach family
members about the significance of the symptoms so that they can be identified
and treated earlier.
Study based on only early adult or college
student’s even subclinical depression is very common among elderly.
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