of Academic Achievement in relation to Study Habit, Test Anxiety in Adolescents
School of Regional Studies and Research
Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur
Dr. Kamal Narayan Gajpal
Professor and Head, Department of Education
College, Choubey Colony, Raipur (CG)-492001
Professor and Head,SOS in Psychology
Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur
Professor & Head
School of Regional Studies & Research
Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to
investigate academic achievement in relation to study habit, test anxiety and
gender. The study sample consisted of 80 students (36 boys and 44 girls) were
selected randomly from Baloda Bazaar District. Study habit inventory
(Mukhopadhyaya and Sansanwal, 2005) and test anxiety questionnaire (Nist and
Diehl, 1990) were used for data collection. The results indicate that there is
a three dimension (Recording, Interaction, and Task orientation) positive
relationship with academic achievement of students and test anxiety Gender of
students is not likely to have any major effect on academic achievement of
Key Words: Academic
achievement; Study habits; Test anxiety
all educational institutions, the whole teaching learning process is directed
towards achievement in the academic field as well as in the sphere of
co-curricular activities. The academic achievement is required to be of greater
value and for the attainment of which the students, teachers and parents strive
towards it. But, it is a well-known fact that all the students can never attain
the same level of achievement in the examination and an increased number of
failures have been realized in recent past. This has posed a problem before all
those concerned with education and teaching. The large incidence of failure in
these school examination has been of great concern not only to the parents but
also to the educator.
day’s anxiety has become a general problem. It is marked by apprehension,
tension and a sense of insecurity. It
may be caused by a number of factors and many types (Sarason&Sarason,
2002). Anxiety is a normal reaction to
certain situations. A small level of anxiety is normal, but severe anxiety can
be a serious problem. Academic anxiety can become more detrimental over time.
As a student’s academic performance suffers, the anxiety level related to
certain academic tasks increases (Huberty, 2009). Most teachers will have
students with social anxiety and/or academic anxiety. Social anxiety can also
affect a student’s academic performance. If a student has social anxiety, the
student might not be able to complete group tasks or might not feel comfortable
asking for help in class. Social anxiety can go along with or even lead to
academic anxiety. Teaching student’s self-regulation can reduce anxiety and
increase academic performance (Adder &Erktin, 2010).
is a psychological and physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic,
emotional, and behavioral component (Seligman, Walker &Resenman, 2001).
These components combine to create an unpleasant feeling that is typically
associated with uneasiness, fear or worry. Anxiety is not the same as fear,
which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is
the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, worry, and
uneasiness, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation
that is only subjectively seen as menacing (Boras & Holt, 2007).The modal definition of anxiety
would be in terms of an unpleasant emotional state or condition marked by
apprehension. Spielberg (1972) defined anxiety as “an unpleasant emotional
state or condition which is characterized by subjective feeling of tension,
apprehension, and worry, and by activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous
Test Anxiety and Academic
much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. It is
perfectly natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking a test.
Test anxiety is really common among college students. It is normal to feel some
level of anxiety or stress regarding upcoming exams, papers or presentations.
Examination stress and test anxiety are pervasive problems in modern society.
As the information age continues to evolve, test scores will become even more
important than they are today in evaluating applicants for demanding jobs and
candidates for admission into highly competitive educational programs. Because
test anxiety generally causes decrements in performance and undermines academic
performance, the development of effective therapeutic interventions for
reducing its adverse effects will continue to be an important priority for
counselors, psychologists, and educators. Alleviating test anxiety will also
serve to counteract the diminished access to educational and occupational
opportunities that is frequently experienced by test-anxious individuals.
Test-anxious children are more
likely to receive poorer scores, repeat a grade, and perform more poorly on
tasks requiring new learning and on those administered in a highly evaluative manner (Beidel, Turner, &
Karen., 1994; De Rosa &Patalano, 1991). Anxiety over test performance has
also been related to low self-esteem, dependency, and passivity (Yildirim,
&Ergene, 2003; Yildirim, Genctanirim, Yalcin, &Baydan, 2008), all of
which have an adverse effect on academic performance (Zeidner, 1991). Although
theories of test anxiety provides important insights regarding the process like
an interference model, deficit model, or information processing model by which
test anxiety affects performance, much of the research on test anxiety has
focused on the differential impact of emotionality and worry factors of test
anxiety on performance (Cassady, & Johnson, 2002; Hembree, 1988; Parks –
Stamm, Collwitzer , &Oettingen, 2010). Emotionality refers to the
physiological reactions such as arousal, trembling, sweating that are
experienced in an evaluative situation. Worry, on the other hand, sees the
cognitive manifestation of test anxiety.
and Vagg (1995) described that test anxiety is an element of general anxiety
and is composed of cognitive attention processes that interfere with
performance in academic situations or examinations. Zeidner (1998) defined test
anxiety as the set of phenomenological, physiological and behavioral responses
that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure on the
examination or similar evaluative situation”. On the other hand, Hong (1998)
define test anxiety as “complex, multidimensional construct involving
cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to evaluative situations”.
Habit and Academic Performance
observations show that under the same conditions, namely same professor, same
subject, same teaching system, same administration, same enrollment criteria,
same time of the day for a specific course and same education level, some
students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are
the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best
way to arrange the study process of multicultural groups of college students,
so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations. Looking
at the history of mankind, we find that each century has witnessed different
transformations. Accordingly, there has been new emphasis and shift in
educational processes (Mangal, 2001).
Habits has been defined in the Dictionary of Education as the student’s way of study,
it can be effective and ineffective etc. Study habits are the methods of
learning or acknowledgement, which has been used by a student. The methods can
be both systematic and unsystematic. A student can be lazy to do his class
work, because that work is for him objectless and out of his reach. To avoid
such kind of situations the students visit the study advisory services so that
they come to know the main reason of their problem or to confirm the choice of
their future study. In other words, it can be assumed that study habits are the
student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient, whereas
good study habits are perceived to be one of the important determinants of
enhancing the academic performance (Mandler& Sarason,1952).
A great deal of research provides
evidence that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables,
which determine the academic performance of students Reference .;Yet, in spite
of the perceived importance of study habits and study attitudes to academic
performance, it seems that education institution still pays little attention to
understanding these factors (Aquino,2011).Education is an activity or process,
which modifies the behavior of a person from instinctive to human behavior (Taneja,
2003). This definition reveals the innate truth that education aims at
discovering aptitudes as well as to progressively prepare man for social
activity; because of this, education through which the basic needs (food,
shelter and clothing) are provided is necessary for the survival of the
Anxiety and Academic performance
et.al. (2005) argued that test anxiety
is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that involves worry, emotionality, and
behavioral reply to being preoccupied by the possible negative outcome of
academic scores. Davis, DiStefano and Schuntz (2008) supported this view in a
study of 2,215 first-year college students (56% female, 44% male). The students
were asked to complete the Cognitive-Appraising Processing Subscales of the
Emotional regulation during Test Taking Scale (developed by Schultz et.al.
2004) and the Test Anxiety Scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory
(Weinstein & Mayer., 1987). A strong correlation between test anxiety and
SAT and general quantitative scores was discovered in the study.
to Tsui and Mazzocco (2007) math performance was found to be less accurate
during timed than untimed testing conditions. In fact, when students were not
time in taking the sample test, they took twice as long to complete it as
opposed to when they were timed. By looking at these results, test anxiety may
be provoked by having to finish a set of math problems in an allotted amount of
time. If one is affected by math anxiety as well as test anxiety, both
anxieties may combine causing a student’s performance to drop significantly.
(2007) discussed various measures and strategies which can be applied by
faculty members to reduce test anxiety among their students. The strategies
which can be contextually relevant and useful for teachers can be; task
orientation and preparation, positive thinking, seeking social support,
avoidance, relaxation training, coaching/guided imagery, self-instructional
training, establishing purpose, affirmation, modalities, positive anchors,
mental simulations, use of humor and study skills training.
and Ahmet (2009) found that test anxiety was a significant predictor for math
anxiety; about 18% of the variance in mathematics anxiety was explained by test
anxiety. Although this finding could lead to the explanation that some
student’s math anxiety may due to a generalized test anxiety. Thus, those
students who experience anxiety while taking tests may be at a heightened risk
for experiencing math anxiety.
fork (2009) observes that an anxious person may experience perceptual
distortions of non-psychotic proportions, which may reflect in attention
processes and thereby critically affect the cognitive performance and
information processing. Hassan Zadeh, Ibrahim and Mahdinejad (2012) find
similar result in their study. According to them, the student’s level of test
anxiety can cause a student’s academic performance to suffer even more
depending on the length of time they suffer from test anxiety. However, test
anxiety according to some researchers, may be influenced by varied factors such
as environmental factors (Aroma &Sokan, 2003); teacher factor and
psychological factors within the students (Ngwoke, 2010). The psychological
factors include the individual’s cognitive variables such as motivation,
adjustment, gender, and study skills.
Mohsen (2009) conducted a study of relationship among test anxiety, gender,
academic performance and years of study: A case of Iranian EFL university’
student. This investigation is a
descriptive analytic study was done on 110 under graduate student from
University of Isfahan. They use Suinn’s test anxiety questionnaire with 48
Questions. For analysis of data correlation coefficient and Chi Square test
were used. Statistically significant negative correlation was observed between
test anxiety and academic performance.
(2009) conducted a study to explore how test anxiety affects students’
performance levels in the sciences, especially in physics, and concluded that
low test-anxious students performed better than high test anxious students on
both numerical and non-numerical tasks in Physics.
Weston, Thelwelland, Page (2009) examined a small literature suggests that
music is an effective means to reduce test anxiety. For instance, a study found
a reduction in test anxiety with high school students and college students
studying with background music for 10 minutes before an exam (Sezer, 2009).
Additionally, music may refocus attention away from more aversive physiological
stimuli and play a role in arousal control.
and Scholten (2009) examined the effects of test anxiety of cognitive ability
test Scores and its implications for validity coefficients from the perspective
of confirmatory factor analysis. We argue that CRV will be increased above the
effect of tested empirically by considering convergent validity of subtest in
five experimented studies of the effect of stereotype threat on test
performance. Results show that the effects of test anxiety on cognitive test
performance may actually enhance the validity of tests.
and Mahmood (2010) found that a significant negative relationship exists
between test anxiety scores and students’ achievement scores. Results showed
that a cognitive factor (worry) contributes more in test anxiety than affective
factors (emotional). Therefore, it is concluded that test anxiety is one of the
factors which are responsible for students’ underachievement and low
performance but it can be manage by appropriate training of students in dealing
with factors causing test anxiety.
(2012) found test anxiety as a physiological condition in which people
experience extreme stress, anxiety, and discomfort during and/or before taking
a test. These responses can drastically hinder an individuals’ ability to
perform well and negatively affects their social emotional and behavioral
development and feelings about themselves and school.
(2012) found test anxiety is known to develop into a vicious cycle. After
experiencing test anxiety on one test, the student may become so fearful of it
happening again they become more anxious and upset than they would normally, or
even than they experienced on the previous test. If the cycle continues without
acknowledgement, or the student may begin to feel helpless in the situation.
Dunn and Lloyd (2013) found that a strong relationship between both test
anxiety and exam grades, and self-efficacy and exam grades. Further, multiple
linear regression analyses showed that exam grade could be predicted by test
anxiety and self-efficacy level, and that self-efficacy moderated the effects
Study Habit and Academic Performance
(2013) conducted correlation study of
academic performance and study habits: issues and concerns. The result
revealed positive relationship between academic performance and study habits
and the degree of relationship is high. It was also found that the academic
performance of students having good and poor study habits differ significantly
and good study habits result in high academic performance.
Chaudhari (2013) investigated study habit of higher secondary school students in relation to their
academic performance in the Banaskantha district of Gujarat. The sample of the
study selected through simple random sampling technique. The sample comprised
of 80 higher secondary school students. The results of the study revealed that
there is a significant positive correlation between study habit and academic
performance of higher secondary school students as whole and dimension wise.
Further, the there is a significant difference between high and low academic
performance student on study habits in general.
Kumar and Sohi (2013)
examined the study habits of male and female students of
rural and urban area and their academic performance. By using stratified random
sampling method 100 students were selected from four schools of Karnal district
of Haryana.Study habit Inventory of Palsane and Sharma was used to collect the
data. Academic performance scores of 9th class fromrespective schools was
taken. Pearson’s Product Moment co-efficient of correlation was applied to know
the relationships between study habits and academic performance. Mean, standard
deviation, standard error of mean, t-test were used to study the study habits
and academic performance of male and female students. Finally, it was concluded
that the sex of students is not likely to have any major effect on study habits
and academic performance of tenth grade students. It was also found that there
is very high and positive relationship between study habits and academic
performance of tenth grade students
Raja and Reddy (2013) investigated 120 high school going children to find out the effect of
gender, locality, type of management and TV viewing hours on their study
habits. Study habits inventory developed and standardized by Nagaraju (2001)
was used to assess the study habits of the subjects. Results revealed that
there are significant differences between boys and girls, rural and urban,
government and private management school students and the amount of time spent
on TV viewing on their study habits
Mohd and Tabassum (2014) analyzed two personal
factors i.e. study habit and achievement motivation to see its influence on
academic performance .The study has also taken into consideration community
(Muslims and non-Muslims) and gender variable .They used from collecting data
278 adolescents studying in class X of Aligarh Schools .The study has revealed
mixed results which have been presented and interpreted along with same
Chamundeswari, Sridevi and Kumari (2014) conducted
a study to see the relationship between self–concept, study habit and academic
performance of students, The participants of the study consist of 381 students
at the higher secondary level by survey methods, the self-concept inventory
(Deo,1985) is used to study self-concept, study habits inventory (Gopal
Rao,1974) was used to assess study habit ,and academic performance marks scored
by students in their quarterly examination were taken for academic performance
Nadeem, Puja, Bhat (2014) investigated study habits
and academic achievement of adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir.Participants
of the study consists 400 sample were selected randomly from two ethnic groups
vie Kashmiri and Ladakhi. They used Palsane and Shrma’s study habits inventory
(PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Significant mean difference was found
between Kashmiri and Ladakhi adolescents on their study habits and academic
Gudaganavar and Halayannavar (2014) investigated influence
of study habits on academic performance of higher primary school students. The sample for
the present study was 250 students. All samples are taken from Bailhongal,
Belgavi district from Karnataka state. The original study habit inventory of
Patel (1976) consisted of 45 statements. Sincesome of the statements were
ambiguous to the students it was slightly modified 39 statements were retained.
Chi-square and t- statistics tools was used for analysis. It was found that
there was no association between boys and girls on study habits. Boys and girls
differed significantly on two dimensions of reading and note taking habits and
preparation for examination. There was significant association between study
habits and academic achievement of girls. There was no significant difference
between study habits and academic achievement of boys.
investigated significant relationship between study habits and academic
performance of higher secondary school students with reference to the
background variables. Survey method was employed. Data for the study were
collected from 300 students in 13 higher secondary schools using Study Habits
Inventory by. Anantha (2004) and the Quarterly Achievement Test Questions. The
significant difference between the means of each pair of groups was computed
using standard deviation, ‘t’ test, ANOVA and Pearson’s Co-efficient of
Correlation. The findings show that there was no significant difference between
study habits and academic performance of higher secondary school students.
Siahi and Maiyo (2015)
investigated the relationship between study habits and academic performance of
students. A survey design was employed in this descriptive correlation study.
The target population included the 9th standard students at Spicer Higher
Secondary School. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents,
study habits inventory by N.M. Palsane and school examinations records was the
main instrument for data collection. Quantitative method was used to analyze
field data collected. Interpretation and recommendations of the findings was
made accordingly as per computed Pearson’s product moment coefficient of
correlation. Results of this study revealed a positive relationship of 0.66
between study habits and academic performance.
Monica (2015) investigated
the influence of study habits on academic performance of students in Home
Economics in junior secondary schools in Enugu State zones. The population of the study was 767 junior
secondary school 3 (JSS 3) students in Home Economics. Yaro yamen was used to
determine the sample size of 379 from the population of the study. Multistage
sampling which involved stratified simple random sampling technique was used to
select 9 intact classes that had 388 students. The study revealed that scores
of study habits that prevail among Home Economics student are poor, average and
good study habits. The study showed that the correlation between study habits
and students’ achievement has positive influence. The result showed that study
habits and academic performance has a significant relationship exist between
study habits and academic performance of secondary school Home Economics
Singh (2015) investigated
various levels and various dimensions of study habits of a student with
academic performance in mathematics. A sample of 600 students of XI and XII
class was chosen from various senior secondary schools of Punjab to find the
level of study habits and its relationship with academic performance in
mathematics. Study reveals that there is significant relationship between
academic achievement in mathematics and students differ significantly on
various levels of study habits.
Singh (2016) study habits are an individual ability.
Some children like to read alone, some in a group, some read aloud and some
silently; there is no strict yardstick to measure the type of study habits.
Many students are unsuccessful in their examinations not because they are short
of knowledge or ability, but because they do not have adequate study habits and
study skills. Home as the first socialization unit which the child has
continuous contact and it is also most powerful medium by which our value
system develops. In this paper effort has been made to find that is there a
significant relationship between academic performance in mathematics with study
habits, Home -environment and their combined effect.
Arora (2016) investigated
the relationship between academic performance and study habits of adolescents.
A representative sample of 100 students studying in 9th class was randomly
selected from senior secondary schools of Ludhiana district of Punjab (India).
Marks obtained by the adolescents in previous annual examination were taken as
an index of academic performance. Study habits inventory by Yadav (1976) has
been used for collection. Data was analyzed by using t-test and coefficient of
correlation. The result revealed
that there was a strong positive correlation between academic performance and
study habits of adolescents.
OF THE STUDY
careful observation of the literature on academic achievement of students
clearly reveals that the academic performance largely depends on various
factors such as physical activity, body mass (Franz & Feresu,
2013), home environment (Kaur, Rana
&, Kaur, 2009), self-concept (Sangeeta, 2009), family structure and
parenthood (Uwaifo, 2008), parenting practices, socioeconomic status (Williams,
2008) and personality and intelligence (Furnham & Monsen, 2009). In this
connection it was thought appropriate that test anxiety and study habit would
affect the academic performance of the students. This important aspect has not
given due attention by the researchers especially in this area, it has been
neglected. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship and to find out the best predicting factors
among test anxiety, study habit and adolescentsin relation to academic
OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESES
1.To study the relationship and to find out the best
predicting factors among test anxiety, study habit and adolescents in relation
to academic performance.
There would be significant relationship between
academic performance and test anxiety, study habit of adolescents
H2: Test anxiety and study habit of adolescents would
predict for academic performance
The sample of the present study consisted of 80
students (36 boys and 44 girls) studying in 11th standard of rural
area of Baloda Bazar Dist., Chhattisgarh.
adaptation of test anxiety questionnaire developed by Nist and Diehl (1990) was
used to determine the student experiences on how mild or severe test anxiety.
It consisted of 10 items using five-point Likert scale such as: Never, Rarely,
Sometimes, Often, and Always. Items were given the score of 1 to 5 with 1 as
the lowest score and 5 as the highest score.
2. Study Habit
Habit Inventory (SHI-MS) developed by Mukhopadhyaya and Sansanwal (2005) was
used. The SHI-MS consist of 70 statements. Responses are given in five-point
rating scale, - Always, Often, Sometimes, Rarely and Never. The study habits
have been considered to be constituted of the nine different kinds of study behavior.
In this Inventory some statements are positively
scored (4,3,2,1,0) whereas some statements are negatively scored (0,1,2,3,4).
This scale covers all psychometric properties
Academic performance is measured by the
obtained percentage of previous class examination. In the present
study percentage was taken as the academic performance score.
Once the permission from the principal and the class
teacher of respective school was taken, the student was contacted and purpose
of study was were made clear to them. After establishing good rapport printed
instructions were made clear to the respondents, and all the scales were
purpose of the present study was to examine the role of test anxiety, study
habit (along with its dimensions), gender on academic performance of the
student. The obtained data were analyzed employing step wise multiple
regression analysis technique using the statistical package for social science
(SPSS) 16thversion. In the present study independent variables were
study habit with its nine dimensions namely, comprehension, concentration, task
orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, support, recording and
language, test anxiety and gender.
Coefficient of correlation and their significance level about the
relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Gender, Test Anxiety,
Com., Conc., Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lang, Study Habit.).
Study habit total
p <* .05, p< ** .01
-1 and figure 4 reveal that significant relationship
was found between academic performance and test anxiety (.05), academic
performance and task orientation (.01), academic performance and interaction (.01)
academic performance and recording at (.01) level of significance.
-2 Coefficient of correlation and their significance
level about the relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Test
Anxiety, Com., Conc., Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lag Study Habit.).
Study habit total
-2 and figure 5 reveal significant
relationship between academic performance and Test anxiety (.05), Academic
performance and Recording at (.05) level of significance.
3 Coefficient of correlation and their significance
level about the relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Test
Anxiety, Com.,Conc.,Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lag Study Habit.).
Study habit total
3 and figure 6 reveal significant
relationship between Academic performance and Task orientation (.05), Academic
performance and Interaction (.01) Academic performance and Recording at (.05)
level of significance.
Multiple Regression Analysis showing the joint contribution of
IndependentVariables with Academic Performance
Study habit 1 (Recording)
Study habit 2
R = .423, R 2 = .179 F = (2, 78 )
= 8.401, p < .01
The results from table 4 revealed significant joint
contribution of the independent variables (study habits) to the outcome
variable i.e., academic performance. This implies that higher secondary school
students’ academic performance correlated positively with the recording and
interaction dimensions of study habits. The result yielded a coefficient of
multiple regression R= .423 and R square is .179. This suggests that the
independent variables accounted for 17.9 % (Adjusted R2 = .179) variance in the prediction of academic performance.
The significance of the composite contribution was tested at p < .01 using
the F-ratio (F = 8.401) at the degree of freedom, df = 2/78.
study concluded test anxiety, gender of students is not likely to have any
major effect on academic performance of students. Recording and interaction dimensions
of study habits revealed sigficante positive relationship with academic
performance. The results of the present study was also supported by the studies
conducted by Choudhari (2013) also worked study habit and their nine dimension
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