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Author(s): Preeti Shukla, Kamal Narayan Gajpal, Meeta Jha, Mitashree Mitra

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Address: School of Regional Studies and Research, Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Education, Pragati College, Choubey Colony, Raipur (CG)-492001
Professor and Head,SOS in Psychology, Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)
Professor & Head, School of Regional Studies & Research, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.).

Published In:   Volume - 26,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2020

Cite this article:
Shukla, Gajpal, Jha, Mitra (2020). Study of Academic Achievement in relation to Study Habit, Test Anxiety in Adolescents. Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-A: SOCIAL-SCIENCE), 26(1), pp.63-76.

Study of Academic Achievement in relation to Study Habit, Test Anxiety in Adolescents

Mrs. Preeti Shukla

Research Scholar

School of Regional Studies and Research

Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)


Dr. Kamal Narayan Gajpal

Associate Professor and Head, Department of Education

Pragati College, Choubey Colony, Raipur (CG)-492001


Dr.Meeta Jha

Professor and Head,SOS in Psychology

Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)

Dr.Mitashree Mitra

Professor & Head

School of Regional Studies & Research

Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.)

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate academic achievement in relation to study habit, test anxiety and gender. The study sample consisted of 80 students (36 boys and 44 girls) were selected randomly from Baloda Bazaar District. Study habit inventory (Mukhopadhyaya and Sansanwal, 2005) and test anxiety questionnaire (Nist and Diehl, 1990) were used for data collection. The results indicate that there is a three dimension (Recording, Interaction, and Task orientation) positive relationship with academic achievement of students and test anxiety Gender of students is not likely to have any major effect on academic achievement of students.
Key Words: Academic achievement; Study habits; Test anxiety

 INTRODUCTION: In all educational institutions, the whole teaching learning process is directed towards achievement in the academic field as well as in the sphere of co-curricular activities. The academic achievement is required to be of greater value and for the attainment of which the students, teachers and parents strive towards it. But, it is a well-known fact that all the students can never attain the same level of achievement in the examination and an increased number of failures have been realized in recent past. This has posed a problem before all those concerned with education and teaching. The large incidence of failure in these school examination has been of great concern not only to the parents but also to the educator.

Now a day’s anxiety has become a general problem. It is marked by apprehension, tension and a sense of insecurity.  It may be caused by a number of factors and many types (Sarason&Sarason, 2002).  Anxiety is a normal reaction to certain situations. A small level of anxiety is normal, but severe anxiety can be a serious problem. Academic anxiety can become more detrimental over time. As a student’s academic performance suffers, the anxiety level related to certain academic tasks increases (Huberty, 2009). Most teachers will have students with social anxiety and/or academic anxiety. Social anxiety can also affect a student’s academic performance. If a student has social anxiety, the student might not be able to complete group tasks or might not feel comfortable asking for help in class. Social anxiety can go along with or even lead to academic anxiety. Teaching student’s self-regulation can reduce anxiety and increase academic performance (Adder &Erktin, 2010).

Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral component (Seligman, Walker &Resenman, 2001). These components combine to create an unpleasant feeling that is typically associated with uneasiness, fear or worry. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, worry, and uneasiness, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing (Boras & Holt, 2007).The modal definition of anxiety would be in terms of an unpleasant emotional state or condition marked by apprehension. Spielberg (1972) defined anxiety as “an unpleasant emotional state or condition which is characterized by subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, and worry, and by activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system”.

Test Anxiety and Academic Performance

Too much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. It is perfectly natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking a test. Test anxiety is really common among college students. It is normal to feel some level of anxiety or stress regarding upcoming exams, papers or presentations. Examination stress and test anxiety are pervasive problems in modern society. As the information age continues to evolve, test scores will become even more important than they are today in evaluating applicants for demanding jobs and candidates for admission into highly competitive educational programs. Because test anxiety generally causes decrements in performance and undermines academic performance, the development of effective therapeutic interventions for reducing its adverse effects will continue to be an important priority for counselors, psychologists, and educators. Alleviating test anxiety will also serve to counteract the diminished access to educational and occupational opportunities that is frequently experienced by test-anxious individuals.

Test-anxious children are more likely to receive poorer scores, repeat a grade, and perform more poorly on tasks requiring new learning and on those administered in a highly   evaluative manner (Beidel, Turner, & Karen., 1994; De Rosa &Patalano, 1991). Anxiety over test performance has also been related to low self-esteem, dependency, and passivity (Yildirim, &Ergene, 2003; Yildirim, Genctanirim, Yalcin, &Baydan, 2008), all of which have an adverse effect on academic performance (Zeidner, 1991). Although theories of test anxiety provides important insights regarding the process like an interference model, deficit model, or information processing model by which test anxiety affects performance, much of the research on test anxiety has focused on the differential impact of emotionality and worry factors of test anxiety on performance (Cassady, & Johnson, 2002; Hembree, 1988; Parks – Stamm, Collwitzer , &Oettingen, 2010). Emotionality refers to the physiological reactions such as arousal, trembling, sweating that are experienced in an evaluative situation. Worry, on the other hand, sees the cognitive manifestation of test anxiety.

Spielberger and Vagg (1995) described that test anxiety is an element of general anxiety and is composed of cognitive attention processes that interfere with performance in academic situations or examinations. Zeidner (1998) defined test anxiety as the set of phenomenological, physiological and behavioral responses that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure on the examination or similar evaluative situation”. On the other hand, Hong (1998) define test anxiety as “complex, multidimensional construct involving cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to evaluative situations”.

Study Habit and Academic Performance

Classroom observations show that under the same conditions, namely same professor, same subject, same teaching system, same administration, same enrollment criteria, same time of the day for a specific course and same education level, some students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best way to arrange the study process of multicultural groups of college students, so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations. Looking at the history of mankind, we find that each century has witnessed different transformations. Accordingly, there has been new emphasis and shift in educational processes (Mangal, 2001).

Study Habits has been defined in the Dictionary of Education as the student’s way of study, it can be effective and ineffective etc. Study habits are the methods of learning or acknowledgement, which has been used by a student. The methods can be both systematic and unsystematic. A student can be lazy to do his class work, because that work is for him objectless and out of his reach. To avoid such kind of situations the students visit the study advisory services so that they come to know the main reason of their problem or to confirm the choice of their future study. In other words, it can be assumed that study habits are the student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient, whereas good study habits are perceived to be one of the important determinants of enhancing the academic performance (Mandler& Sarason,1952).

               A great deal of research provides evidence that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables, which determine the academic performance of students Reference .;Yet, in spite of the perceived importance of study habits and study attitudes to academic performance, it seems that education institution still pays little attention to understanding these factors (Aquino,2011).Education is an activity or process, which modifies the behavior of a person from instinctive to human behavior (Taneja, 2003). This definition reveals the innate truth that education aims at discovering aptitudes as well as to progressively prepare man for social activity; because of this, education through which the basic needs (food, shelter and clothing) are provided is necessary for the survival of the society.


Test Anxiety and Academic performance

Chapell  (2005) argued that test anxiety is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that involves worry, emotionality, and behavioral reply to being preoccupied by the possible negative outcome of academic scores. Davis, DiStefano and Schuntz (2008) supported this view in a study of 2,215 first-year college students (56% female, 44% male). The students were asked to complete the Cognitive-Appraising Processing Subscales of the Emotional regulation during Test Taking Scale (developed by Schultz 2004) and the Test Anxiety Scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (Weinstein & Mayer., 1987). A strong correlation between test anxiety and SAT and general quantitative scores was discovered in the study.

According to Tsui and Mazzocco (2007) math performance was found to be less accurate during timed than untimed testing conditions. In fact, when students were not time in taking the sample test, they took twice as long to complete it as opposed to when they were timed. By looking at these results, test anxiety may be provoked by having to finish a set of math problems in an allotted amount of time. If one is affected by math anxiety as well as test anxiety, both anxieties may combine causing a student’s performance to drop significantly.

Elbe (2007) discussed various measures and strategies which can be applied by faculty members to reduce test anxiety among their students. The strategies which can be contextually relevant and useful for teachers can be; task orientation and preparation, positive thinking, seeking social support, avoidance, relaxation training, coaching/guided imagery, self-instructional training, establishing purpose, affirmation, modalities, positive anchors, mental simulations, use of humor and study skills training.

Kosice and Ahmet (2009) found that test anxiety was a significant predictor for math anxiety; about 18% of the variance in mathematics anxiety was explained by test anxiety. Although this finding could lead to the explanation that some student’s math anxiety may due to a generalized test anxiety. Thus, those students who experience anxiety while taking tests may be at a heightened risk for experiencing math anxiety.

Wool fork (2009) observes that an anxious person may experience perceptual distortions of non-psychotic proportions, which may reflect in attention processes and thereby critically affect the cognitive performance and information processing. Hassan Zadeh, Ibrahim and Mahdinejad (2012) find similar result in their study. According to them, the student’s level of test anxiety can cause a student’s academic performance to suffer even more depending on the length of time they suffer from test anxiety. However, test anxiety according to some researchers, may be influenced by varied factors such as environmental factors (Aroma &Sokan, 2003); teacher factor and psychological factors within the students (Ngwoke, 2010). The psychological factors include the individual’s cognitive variables such as motivation, adjustment, gender, and study skills.

Rezazades, Mohsen (2009) conducted a study of relationship among test anxiety, gender, academic performance and years of study: A case of Iranian EFL university’ student.  This investigation is a descriptive analytic study was done on 110 under graduate student from University of Isfahan. They use Suinn’s test anxiety questionnaire with 48 Questions. For analysis of data correlation coefficient and Chi Square test were used. Statistically significant negative correlation was observed between test anxiety and academic performance.

Oludipe (2009) conducted a study to explore how test anxiety affects students’ performance levels in the sciences, especially in physics, and concluded that low test-anxious students performed better than high test anxious students on both numerical and non-numerical tasks in Physics.

Barwood, Weston, Thelwelland, Page (2009) examined a small literature suggests that music is an effective means to reduce test anxiety. For instance, a study found a reduction in test anxiety with high school students and college students studying with background music for 10 minutes before an exam (Sezer, 2009). Additionally, music may refocus attention away from more aversive physiological stimuli and play a role in arousal control.

Wicherts and Scholten (2009) examined the effects of test anxiety of cognitive ability test Scores and its implications for validity coefficients from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis. We argue that CRV will be increased above the effect of tested empirically by considering convergent validity of subtest in five experimented studies of the effect of stereotype threat on test performance. Results show that the effects of test anxiety on cognitive test performance may actually enhance the validity of tests.

Rana and Mahmood (2010) found that a significant negative relationship exists between test anxiety scores and students’ achievement scores. Results showed that a cognitive factor (worry) contributes more in test anxiety than affective factors (emotional). Therefore, it is concluded that test anxiety is one of the factors which are responsible for students’ underachievement and low performance but it can be manage by appropriate training of students in dealing with factors causing test anxiety.

Salend (2012) found test anxiety as a physiological condition in which people experience extreme stress, anxiety, and discomfort during and/or before taking a test. These responses can drastically hinder an individuals’ ability to perform well and negatively affects their social emotional and behavioral development and feelings about themselves and school.

Kendra (2012) found test anxiety is known to develop into a vicious cycle. After experiencing test anxiety on one test, the student may become so fearful of it happening again they become more anxious and upset than they would normally, or even than they experienced on the previous test. If the cycle continues without acknowledgement, or the student may begin to feel helpless in the situation.

Barrows, Dunn and Lloyd (2013) found that a strong relationship between both test anxiety and exam grades, and self-efficacy and exam grades. Further, multiple linear regression analyses showed that exam grade could be predicted by test anxiety and self-efficacy level, and that self-efficacy moderated the effects of anxiety.

Study Habit and Academic Performance

Anwar (2013) conducted correlation study of academic performance and study habits: issues and concerns. The result revealed positive relationship between academic performance and study habits and the degree of relationship is high. It was also found that the academic performance of students having good and poor study habits differ significantly and good study habits result in high academic performance.

Chaudhari (2013) investigated study habit of higher secondary school students in relation to their academic performance in the Banaskantha district of Gujarat. The sample of the study selected through simple random sampling technique. The sample comprised of 80 higher secondary school students. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant positive correlation between study habit and academic performance of higher secondary school students as whole and dimension wise. Further, the there is a significant difference between high and low academic performance student on study habits in general.

Kumar and Sohi (2013) examined the study habits of male and female students of rural and urban area and their academic performance. By using stratified random sampling method 100 students were selected from four schools of Karnal district of Haryana.Study habit Inventory of Palsane and Sharma was used to collect the data. Academic performance scores of 9th class fromrespective schools was taken. Pearson’s Product Moment co-efficient of correlation was applied to know the relationships between study habits and academic performance. Mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, t-test were used to study the study habits and academic performance of male and female students. Finally, it was concluded that the sex of students is not likely to have any major effect on study habits and academic performance of tenth grade students. It was also found that there is very high and positive relationship between study habits and academic performance of tenth grade students

Raja and Reddy (2013) investigated 120 high school going children to find out the effect of gender, locality, type of management and TV viewing hours on their study habits. Study habits inventory developed and standardized by Nagaraju (2001) was used to assess the study habits of the subjects. Results revealed that there are significant differences between boys and girls, rural and urban, government and private management school students and the amount of time spent on TV viewing on their study habits

Mohd and Tabassum (2014) analyzed two personal factors i.e. study habit and achievement motivation to see its influence on academic performance .The study has also taken into consideration community (Muslims and non-Muslims) and gender variable .They used from collecting data 278 adolescents studying in class X of Aligarh Schools .The study has revealed mixed results which have been presented and interpreted along with same suggestive measures.

Chamundeswari, Sridevi and Kumari (2014) conducted a study to see the relationship between self–concept, study habit and academic performance of students, The participants of the study consist of 381 students at the higher secondary level by survey methods, the self-concept inventory (Deo,1985) is used to study self-concept, study habits inventory (Gopal Rao,1974) was used to assess study habit ,and academic performance marks scored by students in their quarterly examination were taken for academic performance scores.

Nadeem, Puja, Bhat (2014) investigated study habits and academic achievement of adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir.Participants of the study consists 400 sample were selected randomly from two ethnic groups vie Kashmiri and Ladakhi. They used Palsane and Shrma’s study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Significant mean difference was found between Kashmiri and Ladakhi adolescents on their study habits and academic performance.

Gudaganavar and Halayannavar (2014) investigated influence of study habits on academic performance of higher primary school students. The sample for the present study was 250 students. All samples are taken from Bailhongal, Belgavi district from Karnataka state. The original study habit inventory of Patel (1976) consisted of 45 statements. Sincesome of the statements were ambiguous to the students it was slightly modified 39 statements were retained. Chi-square and t- statistics tools was used for analysis. It was found that there was no association between boys and girls on study habits. Boys and girls differed significantly on two dimensions of reading and note taking habits and preparation for examination. There was significant association between study habits and academic achievement of girls. There was no significant difference between study habits and academic achievement of boys.

 Lawrence (2014) investigated significant relationship between study habits and academic performance of higher secondary school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Data for the study were collected from 300 students in 13 higher secondary schools using Study Habits Inventory by. Anantha (2004) and the Quarterly Achievement Test Questions. The significant difference between the means of each pair of groups was computed using standard deviation, ‘t’ test, ANOVA and Pearson’s Co-efficient of Correlation. The findings show that there was no significant difference between study habits and academic performance of higher secondary school students.

Siahi and Maiyo (2015) investigated the relationship between study habits and academic performance of students. A survey design was employed in this descriptive correlation study. The target population included the 9th standard students at Spicer Higher Secondary School. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents, study habits inventory by N.M. Palsane and school examinations records was the main instrument for data collection. Quantitative method was used to analyze field data collected. Interpretation and recommendations of the findings was made accordingly as per computed Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation. Results of this study revealed a positive relationship of 0.66 between study habits and academic performance.

Monica (2015) investigated the influence of study habits on academic performance of students in Home Economics in junior secondary schools in Enugu State zones.  The population of the study was 767 junior secondary school 3 (JSS 3) students in Home Economics. Yaro yamen was used to determine the sample size of 379 from the population of the study. Multistage sampling which involved stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 9 intact classes that had 388 students. The study revealed that scores of study habits that prevail among Home Economics student are poor, average and good study habits. The study showed that the correlation between study habits and students’ achievement has positive influence. The result showed that study habits and academic performance has a significant relationship exist between study habits and academic performance of secondary school Home Economics students.

Singh (2015) investigated various levels and various dimensions of study habits of a student with academic performance in mathematics. A sample of 600 students of XI and XII class was chosen from various senior secondary schools of Punjab to find the level of study habits and its relationship with academic performance in mathematics. Study reveals that there is significant relationship between academic achievement in mathematics and students differ significantly on various levels of study habits.

Singh (2016) study habits are an individual ability. Some children like to read alone, some in a group, some read aloud and some silently; there is no strict yardstick to measure the type of study habits. Many students are unsuccessful in their examinations not because they are short of knowledge or ability, but because they do not have adequate study habits and study skills. Home as the first socialization unit which the child has continuous contact and it is also most powerful medium by which our value system develops. In this paper effort has been made to find that is there a significant relationship between academic performance in mathematics with study habits, Home -environment and their combined effect.

Arora (2016) investigated the relationship between academic performance and study habits of adolescents. A representative sample of 100 students studying in 9th class was randomly selected from senior secondary schools of Ludhiana district of Punjab (India). Marks obtained by the adolescents in previous annual examination were taken as an index of academic performance. Study habits inventory by Yadav (1976) has been used for collection. Data was analyzed by using t-test and coefficient of correlation. The result revealed that there was a strong positive correlation between academic performance and study habits of adolescents.


A careful observation of the literature on academic achievement of students clearly reveals that the academic performance largely depends on various factors such as  physical activity, body mass (Franz & Feresu, 2013), home environment (Kaur, Rana &, Kaur, 2009), self-concept (Sangeeta, 2009), family structure and parenthood (Uwaifo, 2008), parenting practices, socioeconomic status (Williams, 2008) and personality and intelligence (Furnham & Monsen, 2009). In this connection it was thought appropriate that test anxiety and study habit would affect the academic performance of the students. This important aspect has not given due attention by the researchers especially in this area, it has been neglected. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship and to find out the best predicting factors among test anxiety, study habit and adolescentsin relation to academic performance




1.To study the relationship and to find out the best predicting factors among test anxiety, study habit and adolescents in relation to academic performance.


1.H1:  There would be significant relationship between academic performance and test anxiety, study habit of adolescents

2. H2: Test anxiety and study habit of adolescents would predict for academic performance



The sample of the present study consisted of 80 students (36 boys and 44 girls) studying in 11th standard of rural area of Baloda Bazar Dist., Chhattisgarh.


1. Test Anxiety

 Hindi adaptation of test anxiety questionnaire developed by Nist and Diehl (1990) was used to determine the student experiences on how mild or severe test anxiety. It consisted of 10 items using five-point Likert scale such as: Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, and Always. Items were given the score of 1 to 5 with 1 as the lowest score and 5 as the highest score.

2. Study Habit

Study Habit Inventory (SHI-MS) developed by Mukhopadhyaya and Sansanwal (2005) was used. The SHI-MS consist of 70 statements. Responses are given in five-point rating scale, - Always, Often, Sometimes, Rarely and Never. The study habits have been considered to be constituted of the nine different kinds of study behavior.

In this Inventory some statements are positively scored (4,3,2,1,0) whereas some statements are negatively scored (0,1,2,3,4). This scale covers all psychometric properties

3. Academic Performance

Academic performance is measured by the obtained   percentage of   previous class examination. In the present study percentage was taken as the academic performance score.


Once the permission from the principal and the class teacher of respective school was taken, the student was contacted and purpose of study was were made clear to them. After establishing good rapport printed instructions were made clear to the respondents, and all the scales were administered.

Results and Discussion

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of test anxiety, study habit (along with its dimensions), gender on academic performance of the student. The obtained data were analyzed employing step wise multiple regression analysis technique using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) 16thversion. In the present study independent variables were study habit with its nine dimensions namely, comprehension, concentration, task orientation, study sets, interaction, drilling, support, recording and language, test anxiety and gender.

   Table -1 Coefficient of correlation and their significance level about the relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Gender, Test Anxiety, Com., Conc., Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lang, Study Habit.).







Test anxiety









Task orientation



Study set


















Study habit total



p <* .05, p< ** .01

Table -1 and figure 4 reveal that significant relationship was found between academic performance and test anxiety (.05), academic performance and task orientation (.01), academic performance and interaction (.01) academic performance and recording at (.01) level of significance.

Table -2 Coefficient of correlation and their significance level about the relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Test Anxiety, Com., Conc., Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lag Study Habit.). For female.

Text anxiety









Task orientation



Study sets


















Study habit total





Table -2 and figure 5 reveal significant relationship between academic performance and Test anxiety (.05), Academic performance and Recording at (.05) level of significance.

Table 3 Coefficient of correlation and their significance level about the relationship between DV (Academic performance) and IV (Test Anxiety, Com.,Conc.,Task.,Stset. Inter.,Drill.,Supp.,Reco.,Lag Study Habit.). For male.

Text anxiety









Task orientation



Study sets


















Study habit total





Table- 3 and figure 6 reveal significant relationship between Academic performance and Task orientation (.05), Academic performance and Interaction (.01) Academic performance and Recording at (.05) level of significance.

Table 4 Multiple Regression Analysis showing the joint contribution of IndependentVariables with Academic Performance
















Study habit 1 (Recording)







Study habit 2








R = .423,               R 2 = .179              F = (2,  78  ) = 8.401,     p < .01










The results from table 4 revealed significant joint contribution of the independent variables (study habits) to the outcome variable i.e., academic performance. This implies that higher secondary school students’ academic performance correlated positively with the recording and interaction dimensions of study habits. The result yielded a coefficient of multiple regression R= .423 and R square is .179. This suggests that the independent variables accounted for 17.9 % (Adjusted R2 = .179) variance in the prediction of academic performance. The significance of the composite contribution was tested at p < .01 using the F-ratio (F = 8.401) at the degree of freedom, df = 2/78.


The study concluded test anxiety, gender of students is not likely to have any major effect on academic performance of students. Recording and interaction dimensions of study habits revealed sigficante positive relationship with academic performance. The results of the present study was also supported by the studies conducted by Choudhari (2013) also worked study habit and their nine dimension Bajwa et al. (2011), Rollick (1996), Robinson (2000), Creemers and Reynold (2000), Chen (2001), Thakkar (2003), Kazmi (2005), Rana &Kausar (2011) are also supported by the studies.


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