Article in HTML

Author(s): Chandni Markam, L.S. Gajpal

Email(s): gajpal14@gmail.com

Address: Researcher, SoS in Sociology & Social Work, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur CG.
Associate Professor & Head, SoS in Sociology & Social Work, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur CG.

Published In:   Volume - 24,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2018


Cite this article:
Markam & Gajpal (2018). Impact of Displacement on Displaced Families (A Study of New Raipur Capital Project of Chhattisgarh State). Journal of Ravishankar University (Part-A: SOCIAL-SCIENCE), 24(1), pp.07-14.



Impact of Displacement on Displaced Families

(A Study of New Raipur Capital Project of Chhattisgarh State)

Dr. Chandni Markam* &  Dr. L.S.Gajpal**

*Researcher, SoS in Sociology & Social Work, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur CG.

**Associate Professor & Head, SoS in Sociology & Social Work, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur CG.

Email-gajpal14@gmail.com

Abstract : The research paper is based on impact of displacement on displaced families of New Rajdhani project of Chhattisgarh state. The study is mainly based on 217 families of a fully displaced 04 villages Rakhi, Navagaon, Khapri and Kayabandha. Interview-schedule has been compiled from 217 families selected through purposive sampling. The study mainly focuses on what effect did displacement have on the displaced families? It has been known from the study that in the absence of better rehabilitation as a result of displacing, many problems arose for the displaced families, in which problem of livelihood, problem of family disorganization, problem of socialization of children are main.

Key word :  Displacement, Development, social change, Harmony, Family dissolution, Relationship with neighbors, Culture.

Displacement effect:

            The displacement has had an impact on the entire family as shown in the following table. Displacement has more impact on single family or on respondents living in joint family. Because it is not enough for a joint family to live in a rehabilitated place.

Table number 1

Effect of displacement on family

s.n.

Effect of displacement

on family

Single Family

Joint Family

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

1

very much

105

48.2

148

68.2

2

very less

112

51.6

69

31.8

 

Total

217

100

217

100

 

Displacement has an impact on every aspect of people's lives in which an aspect has also been revealed that among the 4 villages that have been displaced both single and joint families are included. The table attempts to explain that what type of displacement has had more impact on the family. In which it was found that according to 51.6 percent of the respondents in a lonely family, the displacement had little effect on their lives and according to 48.2 percent, displacement has a great impact on their lives.

            Similarly, when the effect of displacement on joint family was studied, then it was learned that according to 68.2 percent joint family, displacement has had a great impact on their lives. Whereas, according to 31.8 percent joint families, displacement has had little impact on their lives.

            After observing the effect of displacement on family life, it was also found that Joint families who have been relocated from their place of residence and provided a home in rehabilitation members of the joint family faced relatively more problems in making that adjustment.

 

Disorganization of family:-   An attempt has been made to find out whether the effect of displacement has led to an increase in the number of dissolution of the family of respondents?

 

Table Number 2

Disorganization of family


Disorganization

of family

Rakhi

Khapari

Nawagaon

Kayabandha

Total

s.n.

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

1

Yes

41

87.2

8

12.3

6

9.70

11

25.6

66

30.4

2

No

6

12.8

57

87.7

56

90.3

32

74.4

151

69.6


Total

47

100

65

100

62

100

43

100

217

100

 

The above table deals with the disintegration of the family, In which it has been found in the village Rakhis that according to 87.2 percent of the respondents, families were displaced after the displacement  and according to only 12.8 percent the family has not been dissolved According to 87.7 percent of the respondents in the village Khapri, families have not been disintegrated and after displacement by 12.3 percent have disintegrated, after displacement by 12.3 percent have disintegrated, according to 9.7 percent the family has disintegrated, In the village kayabandh, 74.4 percent of the family has not been dissolved and according to 25.8 percent, their family has been dissolved after the displacement.

                        The displacement of both the habitat and the agricultural land of the village rakhi has been done, so the disintegration of the families with the effect of maximum displacement is seen in this village. The habitat of other villages has not been displaced, hence the disintegration of their families is relatively less.

Impact on Social relationship:-

Thorat (1998) – “The family life of the displaced gets disturbed. Social tension increases. Social system helps people a lot, people become unsafe in areas like informal loans, exchange of food items etc. Before considering the aspects of reducing displacement, we have to understand its meaning. Who will benefit from this process? Is it related to stopping the development process? Any unnecessary displacement that occurs after starting any project should be stopped. Here the word can have many unnecessary meanings. Unnecessary words do not matter to project officials Because those officials believe that displacement is very important and there is no alternative, Whereas those who are affected by it, the process of displacement should be reduced. Therefore, in this regard, we will have to take the middle path and the displaced people and project officials will have to sit together and take decisions.” 1

                        Raju Singh did research on the subject of development, displacement and rehabilitation, in which it was found in the social impact of displacement. Social relations are greatly affected by displacement, There is a close relationship between the persons of the society before the displacement. They are affected by displacement as well as marital relations, Marital relationships break up. Engagement breaks down, individuals face many difficulties in establishing marital relations. All relatives go away. Relationships with the new community decrease because people of the new community keep distance from the alien people. Many times money also has to be paid to establish marital relations.

Table Number 3

Impact on  Social relationship

 

Impact on  Social relations

Rakhi

Khapari

Nawagaon

Kayabandha

Total

s.n.

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

1

Yes

33

70.2

41

63.1

34

54.8

24

55.8

132

60.8

2

NO

14

29.8

24

36.9

28

45.2

19

44.2

85

39.2

 

Total

47

100

65

100

62

100

43

100

217

100

 

It is clear from the table that after the displacement, the way the families have been disintegrated, the social relations have changed in the same way. Displacement has been very effective in them too, according to 60.8 percent of the respondents, displacement has been affected in their social relationships and according to 39.2 percent there has been no impact in their social relationships.

Impact on interpersonal relationships:-

            Displacement has had an impact on people's lives, social relationships as well as inter-family relationships, which is shown in the following table –

Table Number 4

Impact on  interpersonal relationships


Effect on interpersonal relationships

Rakhi

Khapari

Nawagaon

Kayabandha

Total

s.n.

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

1

Yes

39

83

59

90.8

34

54.8

24

55.8

156

71.9

2

No

8

17

6

9.2

28

45.2

19

44.2

61

28.1


Total

47

100

65

100

62

100

43

100

217

100

 

            Displacement has had an impact on every aspect of people's lives. In which family disintegration, impact on social relations and influence on inter-family relations are prominent, 71.9 percent of the respondents have family displacement effect on their family relations and only 28.1 percent of respondents said their family relationships were not affected.

Increase in problems of young children and women:-

Displacement has affected the people of every section of the society. But displacement has a greater impact on women and children, women have faced more problems in adjustment after displacement.

Table Number  5

Increase in problems of young children and women

 

Increase in problems of young children and women

Rakhi

Khapari

Nawagaon

Kayabandha

Total

s.n

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

1

Yes

38

80.9

25

38.5

29

46.8

21

48.8

113

52.1

2

No

9

19.1

40

61.5

33

53.2

22

51.2

104

47.9

 

Total

47

100

65

100

62

100

43

100

217

100

 

The above table shows the effect of displacement in the lives of children and women living in the family. In which displacement has caused problems in the lives of 52.1 percent of women and children and the displacement of 47.9 percent has not caused any significant problems.

Impact on Family:-

                        A negative effect of displacement has also manifested in the form of increasing family discord in people's lives, Unemployment, mental stress, family disintegration are many reasons which have resulted in increase in the art of families.

Table no. 6

Impact on Family


Impact on Family

Rakhi

Khapari

Nawagaon

Kayabandha

Total

sn

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

1

Yes

43

91.5

60

92.3

57

91.9

37

86

197

90.8

2

No

04

8.5

05

7.7

05

8.1

06

14

20

9.20


Total

47

100

65

100

62

100

43

100

217

100

 

                        According to the facts obtained, displacement has affected every aspect of respondents life, which mainly includes his family life. Displaced people have no business of theirs they are living a life of unemployment which has resulted in infighting in his family. According to 90.8 percent of the respondents, there has been an increase in discord in their family after displacement and only 9.2 percent said that there is no bickering in their family.

Relations with neighbors after rehabilitation:-

                        Mishra Sujit Kumar in his study concluded that 74% of the family received new residents after displacement and Only 14 percent of the family has received its old footwear, 5 percent of the respondents said that they do not know their old neighbors, 7 percent of the respondents are not neighbors, the area in which they have got a house is vacant. This type of neighbor mainly causes chaos. Because the series of neighbors before displacement is no longer after displacement. There is no such rule under the rehabilitation rule that they get neighbors according to the wishes of the respondents. A lottery system was used to divide them geographically. The result of which was that each one got from their neighbor luck and not from desire. Whereas before the displacement, the respondents according to their caste, community, relatives etc. had received neighbors.3

                        Saini Santosh Kumar, in his research, found that after migration of Kashmiri migrants, the relationship with neighbors was 82.3 percent very good and according to 17.6 percent, their relationship with their neighbors is very simple. 4

                        Neighborhood is very important in the village, people of the neighborhood come less during the time of objection. Neighbors do not matter much in cities, even people do not even know their neighbors. If someone is interpreted below, then a party keeps celebrating above. In cities, there are formal relations with neighbors rather than intimate or intimate relationships.

Table No. 7

Relations with neighbors after rehabilitation

Rakhi

s.n

Relations with neighbors

Frequency

percentage

1

Good

09

19.1

2

Bad

02

4.30

3

Normal

36

76.6

 

Total

47

100

 

Before the resettlement, the respondent where he resided knew him for years and was familiar with that environment but now his relatives and neighbors change, In which according to 76.6 percent respondents, their relationship with neighbors is simple, according to 19.1 percent of the respondents, the relationship is good, and only 4.3 percent say that their relationship is not good.

Celebration of festivals :-

                        Raju Singh in his research study has found that the trend of worship of archana, night awakening, recognition of folk deities, Participation in religious festival, Bhajan Kirtan before displacement has decreased. Because people have got away from religious life due to displacement.

                        After the displacement, the religious tendency of displaced people has decreased. There has been a decrease in participation of religious festivals. Because of the displacement, there is also a lack of temple at the place of restoration of the folk goddess. 5

                        In the following table, an attempt has been made to know whether the people are properly celebrated in the rehabilitated place.

 

 

 

Table no. 8

Celebration of festivals

Rakhi

 

Celebration of festivals

Before Displacement

After Displacement

s.n

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

percentage

1

Yes

41

87.2

20

42.8

2

No

06

12.8

27

58.4

 

Total

47

100

47

100

 

In table number 8, it has been observed that the person feels more secure and safe with the family and neighbors. But after displacement 58.4 percent of the respondents are unable to celebrate the festivals properly, but before the displacement 87.2 percent of the respondents used to celebrate Festival very well.

Impact of Displacement on Culture:-

                        Culture regulates social activities, processes in social change reflect those different ways. Through whom Indian culture influences the various changes introduced in India. In modernity, members of the lower caste often follow the way of life and rituals of the upper caste and are also successful in it, this is called Sanskritization.

Altos (2005) has found in his study“The whole debate of development is related to the effects of culture and development, discovery of processes and cultural identity. Western attitudes have also influenced the culturally distinct identity of developing countries.”6

According to Mucully (1998) studied “The modern dimension of development has also succeeded in establishing a monopoly of developed western cultural concepts mainly of developed countries. Which can be considered an advanced form of imperialism itself.” 7

                                    According to Raju Singh studied the effect of pre and post displacement in folk culture by displacement, in which it was found that after displacement Four of social prestige have decreased, social prestige of the family, caste unity and collective unity have decreased. Four of social prestige have decreased, social prestige of the family, caste unity and collective unity have decreased. The reason for this is to acquire the family's land. Land acquisition has reduced the family's prestige, caste unity has also declined, the reason for this is that the family members should be rehabilitated in remote areas, this has also reduced the group's unity. 8

                        “In the earlier studies on the impact of displacement on culture, it has been found that the impact of development projects on tribal people has been devastating. Since the areas where they usually live are rich in natural resources, they are often forcibly displaced from their lands, So that little or no compensation has to be paid for dams, mining, and other projects. Separating from the environment and separating from itself, tribal culture broke down under this attack. Yet the social and cultural implications of starting a new development project are seldom noted. Tribal culture is deeply rooted in the land, and it is difficult for outsiders to understand this emotional link.” 9

Table number 8.1

Impact of Displacement on Culture

Rakhi

s.n.

Impact of Displacement on Culture

Frequency

Percentage

1

Yes

42

89.4

2

No

05

10.6

 

Total

47

100

 

The change has resulted in a considerable change in folk culture according to 89.4 percent of the respondents and according to the 10.6 percent respondents  no any change in folk culture due to displacement .

The conclusion:-

                        It is clear from the above analysis of the effect of displacement on the family that Displacement in the name of development has affected the displaced families widely. Displacement has not only affected family relations but also has a negative impact on inter-family and inter-family relationships. Displacement has also affected the relationship of parents under husband and wife. Many families are disintegrated; many are on the verge of disintegration. These impact are very serious issues in displaced villages and a challenge in front of policy maker also because due to this unrest creating amongst the affected families which is not good sign for the society. It is clear that in the absence of better rehabilitation, the displaced family faces a deep crisis of livelihood.

 

References:-

1.Thorat, Sukhadeo. Ambedkar”s Role in Economic Plannning and Water Policy. New Delhi: Shilpa Publications. 1998. p36.

2.Singh ,Raju.  Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation. Rawat Publication, New Delhi. 2016. p.57.

3.Mishra, Sujit kumar development and  displacement  :  a case study of Rengali dam in Orissa, India. 2002.p24

4.Saini, Santosh Kumar : Economic Impact of Displacement of Kashmiri Migrants in 1905, Economic Department, University of Jammu. 2012. P. 31.

5.Raju Singh: Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation. Rawat Publication, New Delhi. 2016. p.104.

6.Alston, Philips. Ships Passing in the Night: The current State of the Human Rights and the Development Debate. Seen through the less of the Millennium Development Goals. Human Rights Quarterly 27. John Hopkins: University Press. 2005.

7.McCully, Patrick. Silencd Rivers: the Ecology and politics of Large Dams. Hyderabad: Orient Longman Limited. 1998. p 86.

8.Singh, Raju . Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation. Rawat Publication, New Delhi. 2016. p.98.



Related Images:

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Nitesh Kumar Mishra; Anshu Mala Tirkey; Baleswar Kumar Besra

DOI: 10.52228/JRUA.2020-26-1-7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ashish Kumar Shrivastava; Saket Ranjan Praveer

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vibha Bharadwaj; J.L. Bharadwaj

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R.P. Das; G. K. Deshmukh; Sanskrity Joseph

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): G.K. Deshmukh; Sanskrity Joseph; Asha Sahu

DOI: 10.52228/JRUA.2019-25-1-4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Abha Rupender Pal; Jyoti Dharmadhikari

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): L. S. Gajpal; J. L. Tiwari; K. N. Gajpal

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Anamika Modi Jain; Meeta Jha

DOI: 10.52228/JRUA.2022-28-1-11         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. K. Pandey; Radha Pandey; Manisha Pandey

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A Kalaimathi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Lalita Agrawal; Madhulika Agrawal

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): G. Tejashwee; Ashok Pradhan; Gulshan Deshlahara

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More


Popular Articles